; Kronjee, G.J. As the Reformation reached England, some Puritans fled from persecution to Amsterdam and other Dutch cities. About 4% of newborns were baptized within the PKN in 2014. The Dutch government chose not to make special laws regarding cults, sects or new religious movements (generally all informally called "sekten" in Dutch). As a result of the declining religious adherence, the two major strands of Calvinism, the Dutch Reformed Church and the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, together with a small Lutheran group, began to cooperate. , Secularization, or the decline in religious adherence and practice, first became noticeable after 1960 in the Protestant rural towns of Friesland and Groningen. In 2004, the, Donk, W.B.H.J. The history of religion in the Netherlands has been characterized by considerable diversity of religious thought and practice. Smaller churches make up about the 0.1% of the Dutch population. Finally the Catholic south also showed declines in religious practice and belief. Before the advent of Christianity, the Netherlands were populated by Celtic tribes in the South, which adhered to Celtic polytheism, and Germanic tribes in the North, which adhered to Germanic paganism. Tacitus described the creation myth of Mannus, a primitive man from which all Germanic tribes were said to have emerged. Only Calvinists (and, in some cases, Jews) were allowed to hold political office. van de; Jonkers, A.P. Catholicism dominated Dutch religion until the early 16th century, when the Protestant Reformation began to develop. , In the 21st century, a large majority of the Dutch population believes in the separation of church and state, that is, that religion should not play a decisive role in politics or public education.
Associated with immigration from North Africa and the Mideast of the 20th century, Muslims and other minority religions were concentrated in ethnic neighborhoods in the cities. Roughly fifty years later, in 1886, another group of orthodox Calvinists, led by Abraham Kuyper, split from the Dutch Reformed Church. Other places in this area are Yerseke, Tholen, Ouddorp, Opheusden, Kesteren, Barneveld, Nunspeet, Elspeet and Staphorst. Then the Reformation in Switzerland when Huldrych Zwingli began preaching what would become the first form of the Reformed doctrine in Zürich in 1519. The Old Saxon Baptismal Vow describes how one must renounce his old gods (described as "devils") and submit to the Christian Trinity. Protestants in this area, many of them prosperous merchants, fled en masse to Holland, Zeeland, and Friesland. During the same period, Islam increased from 0% to 5%. From the center of the diocese, successively the cities of Tongeren, Maastricht and Luik, this part of the Netherlands was probably Christianized. An important action of the resistance movement was hiding Jews from Nazis. Religious affiliation by year (1830–2015), Secularization, decline of Christianity, and growth of religious minorities, Cults, sects, and new religious movements, Member loss of Christian groups 2003-2013 according to church reports, Including members of other religions other than Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Judaism, Provided statistics show Protestants by their allegiance to congregations of two denominations that do not exist anymore. The Netherlands hosted religious refugees, including Puritans from England (the most famous of the latter were the Pilgrims, who in the early 17th century emigrated to what became the Massachusetts Bay Colony in North America).  Religion in the Netherlands is generally considered a personal matter, which is not supposed to be propagated in public. Gods such as Nehalennia, Hludana and Sandraudiga are of indigenous (Celtic) origin; the Germanic people had such gods as Wodan, Donar and Frigg/Freya from Scandinavia. The majority of the population identified as agnostic (31%) or ietsistic (27%). In the 8th century, Anglo-Saxon missionaries such as Boniface continued efforts to Christianize the land inhabited by the Frisians. Important abbeys such Rolduc, Susteren, Sint Odiliënberg and Egmond were highly influential in the countryside. , Secularization, or the decline in religious adherence and practice, first became noticeable after 1960 in the Protestant rural towns of Friesland and Groningen. God in Nederland' (1996-2006), by Ronald Meester, G. Dekker, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFHoekstra2000 (, Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau, God in Nederland (2006/2007), Hans Knippenberg, "Secularization in the Netherlands in its historical and geographical dimensions,", Tomáš Sobotka and Feray Adigüzel, "Religiosity and spatial demographic differences in the Netherlands" (2002), Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Reformed Churches in the Netherlands (Liberated), Union of Baptist Churches in the Netherlands, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the Netherlands, United Pentecostal and Evangelical Churches, Hinduism-oriented new religious movements, Statistics Netherlands' historical data, 1849-2015, 2010–2015 Statistics Netherlands' new surveys, "Helft Nederlanders is kerkelijk of religieus", "Special Eurobarometer 493, European Union: European Commission, October 2019, pages 229-230", https://www.scientias.nl/niet-religieuze-nederlander-is-nu-officieel-in-de-meerderheid/, "Dutch bishops give Pope Francis a bleak picture of Catholic Church in decline", Kerncijfers Rooms-Katholieke Kerk 2016 door drs. The Netherlands became dominated among three religious pillars, an orthodox Calvinist, a Catholic, and a neutral one. This accounts for a total member loss of 1,282,311 (9.7% overall population) of all churches in the Netherlands within these 10 years. The largest of which is the Protestant Church in the Netherlands (8.6%), which in fact is an alliance of three churches, two Calvinist and one Lutheran. In 1940, the Netherlands was occupied by Nazi Germany.  Following World War II the Bahá'ís established a committee to oversee introducing the religion across Europe and so the permanent growth of the community in the Netherlands begins with Bahá'í pioneers arriving in 1946. They also had influence with the eastern English shires, with which they were in contact through trading across the North Sea. Strict Calvinists converted a belt of land from the southwest (the province of Zeeland), via the Veluwe, to the north of the Netherlands (to the city of Staphorst) during the 17th and even as late as the 18th centuries. The Catholic episcopal hierarchy was forbidden and Catholics were forbidden to hold religious processions in all provinces except for Noord Brabant and Limburg.
In the Beeldenstorm in 1566, they conducted iconoclasm, destroying statues, paintings, and other religious depictions and artifacts in churches. , The Dutch constitution guarantees freedom of education, which means that all schools that adhere to general quality criteria receive the same government funding. Similar studies were done in 1966, 1979 and 1996, showing a steady decline of religious affiliation. Other Christian denominations were mostly tolerated, although discriminated against, and believers were not allowed to practice their religion in public. An opposition movement developed. It took until 1000 CE before all pagan people were Christianized, and the Frisian and Saxon religions had died out. 1,800 instances of abuse "by clergy or volunteers within Dutch Catholic dioceses" were reported to have occurred since 1945. Civil war broke out in the 1610s between strict and liberal Calvinists. During the same period, Islam increased from nearly 0% to 5%. In 2015 only 25% of the population adheres to one of the Christian churches, 5% is Muslim and 2% adheres to Hinduism or Buddhism, based on indepth interviewing. These percentages are based on independent in-depth interviewing by Radboud University and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. However, some communities with strong conservative Protestant leanings are situated outside the belt. Calvinism became the de facto state religion. However, the theological underpinnings go back much further, as Protestant theologians of the time cited both Church Fathers and the Apostles to justify their choices and formulations. Since then there has been a significant decline of Christianity—both Catholic but especially Protestant—so that nowadays Catholics outnumber Protestants and there is a secular majority, while also including a relatively common Muslim minority.
The Celts and Germans in the Low Countries were also most likely to have had tree shrines, following the example of the Old Norse Yggdrasil and the Saxon Irminsul and Donar's oak.  They reported higher number of church members than what was found by independent in-depth interviewing by Radboud University and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam.
[ citation needed ] Many Jews, especially from Antwerp, migrated to Amsterdam. This finding reveals no significant difference between Roman Catholic institutions and other institutions. Ministerie wist het niet meer - Religie - TROUW", "Steunpunt slachtoffers misstanden bij sektes gelanceerd | Nieuwsbericht", "Het hiernamaals is vooral een walhalla zonder God", Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Religion_in_the_Netherlands&oldid=983010977, Articles with Dutch-language sources (nl), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Continued Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, Free Old Reformed Parishes in the Netherlands, According to an independent in-depth interviewing by, KASKI (Katholiek Sociaal-Kerkelijk Insituut / Catholic Social-Ecclesiastical Institute, A December 2014 survey by the VU University Amsterdam found that for the first time there were more atheists (25%) than theists (17%) in the Netherlands, the majority of the population being agnostic (31%) or, This page was last edited on 11 October 2020, at 18:27.
The most prominent Dutch theologian was the humanist Desiderius Erasmus.
"Changes in Choice of Spouse as an Indicator of a Society in a State of Transition: Woerden, 1830–1930,". Also in 1566 William the Silent, Prince of Orange, a convert to Calvinism, started the Eighty Years' War to liberate the Calvinist Dutch from the Catholic Spaniards. Institutionalized Dutch baptism was a model for both English and American Baptists. From 1600 until the second half of the 20th century, the north and west had embraced the Protestant Reformation and were Calvinist.
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