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The Dissident

Indonesian music and dance. [165] Reduction of trade barriers from the mid-1980s made the economy more globally integrated. [101] Problems include the destruction of peatlands, large-scale illegal deforestation—and the resulting Southeast Asian haze—over-exploitation of marine resources, air pollution, garbage management, and reliable water and wastewater services. [132], Indonesia maintains 132 diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village head (lurah or kepala desa). [276], The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. [191], Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft. Winds are moderate and generally predictable, with monsoons usually blowing in from the south and east in June through October, and from the northwest in November through March. [297] Some theatre traditions also include music, dancing and the silat martial art such as Randai from Minangkabau people of West Sumatra. [114], Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [205] Other attractions include the specific points in Indonesian history, such as the colonial heritage of the Dutch East Indies in the old towns of Jakarta and Semarang, and the royal palaces of Pagaruyung, Ubud, and Yogyakarta. [177] Rickshaws such as bajaj and becak and share taxis such as Angkot and Metromini are a regular sight in the country. Dirgantara Indonesia), Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus. Large species such as the Sumatran tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant, and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. [34], The first Europeans arrived in the archipelago in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolise the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in the Maluku Islands. Indonesia is the world's largest island country and the 14th-largest country by land area, at 1,904,569 square kilometres (735,358 square miles). However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly. [133] The country adheres to what it calls a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking a role in regional affairs in proportion to its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among other countries. A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia. [21][22][23] Homo sapiens reached the region around 43,000 BCE. [287] Examples include Toraja's Tongkonan, Minangkabau's Rumah Gadang and Rangkiang, Javanese style Pendopo pavilion with Joglo style roof, Dayak's longhouses, various Malay houses, Balinese houses and temples, and also different forms of rice barns (lumbung). [282], There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Indonesia. [193] Indonesia has also joined the South Korean programme to manufacture the fifth-generation jet fighter KAI KF-X. Spices (notably chilli), coconut milk, fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients.[320]. [301] Notable films in this period include Pengabdi Setan (1980), Nagabonar (1987), Tjoet Nja' Dhien (1988), Catatan Si Boy (1989), and Warkop's comedy films. [233] The Shias and Ahmadis respectively constitute 1% (1–3 million) and 0.2% (200,000–400,000) of the Muslim population. [19] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. [65] It brought out popular discontent with the New Order's corruption and suppression of political opposition and ultimately ended Suharto's presidency. [citation needed], The village is the lowest level of government administration. [164] This development continued throughout the 1980s and into the next decade despite the 1990 oil price shock, during which the GDP rose at an average rate of 7.1%. [256][257], Education is compulsory for 12 years. [123], Since 1999, Indonesia has had a multi-party system. [307] Private radio stations carry news bulletins while foreign broadcasters supply programmes. [109] They predict that unreduced emissions would see an average temperature rise of around 1 °C (2 °F) by mid-century,[110][111] amounting to almost double the frequency of scorching days (above 35 °C or 95 °F) per year by 2030. In 2016, Warkop DKI Reborn: Jangkrik Boss Part 1 smashed box office records, becoming the most-watched Indonesian film with 6.8 million tickets sold. [82], Tectonically, Indonesia is highly unstable, making it a site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Coordinates: 5°S 120°E / 5°S 120°E / -5; 120. Indonesia’s president, Joko Widodo has announced the national capital will move from Jakarta, on the island of Java, to the province of East Kalimantan, on Borneo. [294] Other forms of local drama include the Javanese Ludruk and Ketoprak, the Sundanese Sandiwara, Betawi Lenong,[295][296] and various Balinese dance drama. A string of volcanoes runs through Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara, and then to the Banda Islands of Maluku to northeastern Sulawesi. Indonesia. [231] Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority country[232] with 227 million adherents in 2017, with the majority being Sunnis (99%). [25] Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the eighth century BCE[26] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE. Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture, as well as those of Japan and South Korea to some extent. ", "Palm Oil and Land Acquisition in Indonesia: Implications for Local Communities and Indigenous People", "Evaluating Indonesia's Progress on its Climate Commitments", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22710912A94267053.en, "Extinction crisis escalates: Red List shows apes, corals, vultures, dolphins all in danger", 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T19495A8925965.en, Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, "Climate Change in Indonesia: Implications for Humans and Nature", "Report: Flooded Future: Global vulnerability to sea level rise worse than previously understood", "Jakarta, the fastest-sinking city in the world", "Indonesia: Climate Risk and Adaptation Country Profile", "Indonesia: General elections test the amended Constitution and the new Constitutional Court", "The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia", "Governor of Jakarta Receives His Party's Nod for President", "New election bill, new hope for democracy", "Explaining the 2019 simultaneous elections", "House Agrees on Creation of Indonesia's 34th Province: 'North Kalimantan, "Indonesia Law No. Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, influential nationalist leaders, proclaimed Indonesian independence and were appointed president and vice-president respectively. Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals,[227] as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch. [14] Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's most enormous diversity of coral reef fish with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only. They, however, failed to progress through the next stage in all occasions. [253] At the national and local level, Indonesia's political leadership and civil society groups have played a crucial role in interfaith relations, both positively and negatively. Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities. It consists of more than seventeen thousand islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, and New Guinea (Papua). [97] Tropical seas surround Indonesia's 80,000 kilometres (50,000 miles) of coastline. The city of … With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace (PT. [321] Other popular dishes include rendang, one of the many Padang cuisines along with dendeng and gulai. In 2014, the Constitutional Court ruled that, starting in 2019, legislative and presidential elections are to be held simultaneously. The company also collaborated with EADS CASA of Spain to develop the CN-235 that has seen use by several countries. [173], Indonesia's transport system has been shaped over time by the economic resource base of an archipelago, and the distribution of its 250 million people highly concentrated on Java. “We will not disturb any existing protected forest, instead we will rehabilitate it,” the planning minister Bambang Brodjonegoro, was reported as saying in the South China Morning Post. The problem has been exacerbated by the explosion of new apartment blocks, shopping malls and even government offices and increases in the risk of a catastrophic flooding. [178] In 2015, the government announced a plan to build a high-speed rail, which would be a first in Southeast Asia.[179]. They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased its role in national governance,[115] while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management. Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Indonesia (/ˌɪndəˈniːʒə/ (listen) IN-də-NEE-zhə), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia [reˈpublik ɪndoˈnesia] (listen)),[a] is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. [91] Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species. The government expects to start moving some of its bureaucrats by around 2024. The economy reached its low point in mid-1999 with only 0.8% real GDP growth. As of 2019[update], it is the world's 16th largest economy by nominal GDP and 7th in terms of GDP at PPP, estimated to be US$1.100 trillion and US$3.740 trillion respectively. Most Hindus are Balinese,[235] and most Buddhists are Chinese Indonesians. It is believed to have caused a global volcanic winter and cooling of the climate, and subsequently led to a genetic bottleneck in human evolution, though this is still in debate. [249][250][251] Although they are the most common branch, there is a multitude of other denominations elsewhere in the country. Although relations among the diverse population are mostly harmonious, acute sectarian discontent and violence remain a problem in some areas. Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography support one of the world's highest levels of biodiversity. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra, Pattimura in Maluku, and bloody 30-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces. Species endemic to Indonesia. Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. Widodo says that the relocation is about addressing inequality and relieving some of the burden on Jakarta, and the island of Java. [202], Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. [200][201] China, Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, and Japan are the top five sources of visitors to Indonesia. Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on candi bas reliefs in eastern Java. In 2017, Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4,200 terawatt-hours (14.2 quadrillion British thermal units), and the 15th largest energy consumer, with 2,100 terawatt-hours (7.1 quadrillion British thermal units). “This huge project will need to be done quickly to prevent Jakarta from sinking under the sea,” he said last month. Taufiq Tanasaldy, Regime Change and Ethnic Politics in Indonesia, Brill Academic. [164] A gradual process of industrialisation and urbanisation began in the late 1960s and accelerated in the 1980s as falling oil prices saw the government focus on diversifying away from oil exports and towards manufactured exports.

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